Risk of Autism Increased in Children of Mothers with Diabetes



Media advisory: To contact corresponding author Anny H. Xiang, Ph.D., email Elita Fielder at Elita.T.Fielder@kp.org. The full study is available on the For The Media website.

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Translation available: A translation in simplified Chinese is available below.



Bottom Line: The risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was increased in children of mothers with the three main types of diabetes that complicate pregnancy, findings that add new information on type 1 diabetes and extend what is already known about type 2 and gestational diabetes.

Why The Research Is Interesting: Maternal preexisting type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by 26 weeks have been associated with increased risk of ASD in children in prior research. Less is known about ASD risk associated with maternal preexisting type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Who and When: 419,425 children born at 28 to 44 weeks from 1995-2012.

What (Study Measures and Outcomes): Maternal T1D, T2D and GDM (exposures); diagnosis in children of ASD, which includes autistic disorders, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (outcomes)

How (Study Design): This was an observational study. Researchers were not intervening for purposes of the study and cannot control all the natural differences that could explain the study findings.

Authors: Anny H. Xiang, Ph.D., Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California, and coauthors

Results: Risk of ASD was higher in children exposed in utero to maternal preexisting T1D, T2D and gestational diabetes diagnosed by 26 weeks compared with no maternal diabetes exposure.

Study Limitations: Risk factors of the father, along with other intrauterine and postnatal exposures, couldn’t be assessed.

Study Conclusions: Results suggest the severity of maternal diabetes and the timing of exposure (early vs late in pregnancy) may be associated with the risk of ASD in children of mothers with diabetes.

To Learn More: The full study is available on the For The Media website.


Editor’s Note: This study is being presented at the American Diabetes Association’s 78th Scientific Sessions. Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

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Translation in Simplified Chinese




媒体咨询:联系通讯作者Anny H. Xiang, Ph.D.,请发电子邮件到Elita Fielder Elita.T.Fielder@kp.org



概要: 根据《美国医学会杂志 》(JAMA)发表的一项研究,母亲在怀孕期间患有三种主要类型的糖尿病会导致儿童患自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)的风险增加,这些发现增加了关于1型糖尿病的新信息并扩展了已知的对于2型和妊娠糖尿病的认识。


为何对该问题感兴趣:在之前的研究中发现,到怀孕26周时诊断出的母亲预先存在的2型糖尿病(T2D)和妊娠糖尿病(GDM)与儿童ASD风险增加有关联, 而与母亲先前存在的1型糖尿病(T1D)有关的ASD风险则知之甚少。




研究内容(研究手段及结果):母亲T1D,T2D和GDM(暴露); 儿童的ASD诊断,包括自闭症,阿斯伯格综合征和其它非指定的广泛性发育障碍(结果)


如何研究(研究设计):这是一项观察性研究。 研究人员不会为研究目而进行干预,也无法控制可以解释研究结果的所有自然差异。


作者:Anny H. Xiang, Ph.D., 南加州凯萨医疗机构(Kaiser Permanente Southern California),帕萨迪纳,加利福尼亚州,以及共同作者。








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